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英语语法基础【六】——连接词

一、连接符号

谈连接词之前,应先谈连接符号。通常用来连接两句的符号只有三个,即:

破折号(-),冒号(:),及分号(;)

1.破折号

此类符号专用来连接两句,同时强调第一个句子,以补充意思的不足,相当于“也就是说”或“换句话说”的意思。

There is hardly anything he doesn’t know — he is a child prodigy.

== There is hardly anything he doesn’t know. That is to say, he is a child prodigy. 

== There is hardly anything he doesn’t know. That is, he is a child prodigy. 

== There is hardly anything he doesn’t know. In other words., he is a child prodigy.  (他几乎无所不知,换句话说,他是个神童。)

2.冒号

此类符号亦可用于连接两句,以强调前句中的名词。

He made his goal known to us: he wanted to study abroard.

(他让我们知道了他的目标:他要出国深造。)

3.分号

此类符号相当于逗号 + 连接词(and, so, but)。

He is nice; I like him.

== He is nice, so I like him. (他人不错,因此我很喜欢他。)

Hi is nice; however, I don’t like him.

== He is nice, but I don’t like him. (他人不错,但我不喜欢他。)

He is nice; he is rich as well.

== He is nice, and he is rich as well. (他人不错,而且他钱也不少。)

二、并列连接词

1.基本的并列连接词有三个:and, or, but. 此类连接词可连接对等的单词、短语或句子。

1.单词:

He and I enjoy singing.

主语   主语

He is kind and handsome.  (他心底好,人又帅。)

         形容词           形容词

Is he nice or bad ? 

He don’t love me but hates me. (他并不爱我,而是恨我。)

2.短语

I came to see him and (to) tell him the truth. (我来是要看他并把真相告诉他。)

I came not to see him but to see her. (我来并不是要见他,而是要见她。)

Does he work in Shanghai or in Beijing ? (他在上海还是北京工作?)

3.句子

He works hard, and I’m proud of him. (他很努力,我也以他为荣。)

He failed not because he was sick but because he was lazy. (他失败并非因为他生病,而是应为他懒。)

2.but可连接结构对等的句子,此时but亦可被while或whereas取代,均译成“而”。

She is clever, but he is stupid.

== She is clever, while he is stupid.

== She is clever, whereas he is stupid. (她很聪明,而他却很笨。)

注意:

1.结构不对等的主句,通常只用but连接,此时不宜使用while或whereas。but译为“但是”。

He is nice, while I don’t like him. (×)

He is nice, whereas I don’t like him. (×)

–> He is nice, but I don’t like him. (√)

2.While 表“而”时,亦可等于and.

He is president of the company, while (=and) his son is general manager. (他是公司的总裁,而他儿子则是总经理。)

3.虽然基本的并列连词只有and, or, but三个,但亦可由三个变化成下列数个连词。

and –> both … and …  (一方面……同时……)

or –> either … or … (要不就是……要不就是……)

or –> neither … or … (既非……亦非……)

but –> not … but … (并非……而是……)

but –> not only … but also (不仅……而且……)

这些连接词亦可连接对等的单词,短语或句子。

1.单词:

Both John and Mary work hard. (约翰和玛丽工作工作都很努力。)

He is not rich but poor. (他不是富人而是穷人。)

He will either stay or leave. (他不是走就是留。)

2.短语

He went there not to work but to play. (他去那里不是要工作而是要玩。)

He succeeded not only because of his intelligence but (also) because of his hard work. (他成功不仅因为他聪明,也因为他努力。)

3.句子

He succeeded not only because he was intelligent but (also) because he worked hard. 并列状语从句

Not only can she sing, but she can (also) dance.  并列分句

== She can not only sing but (also) dance. 并列动词

(他不仅会唱歌,而且也会跳舞。)

注意:

1)not only … but also … 连接句子时,not only之后应采用倒装结构,而but also不可直接连接句子,应将also移位在句中,或予以省略。

Not only she can sing, but also she can dance. (×)

Not only can she sing, but also she can dance. (√)

2) also亦可被as well取代

Not only can she sing, but she can dance as well. (√)

4.

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