分享交流
合作共赢!

英语语法基础【五】——关系词

英语语法基础【四】——动词

关系词包含关系代词、关系代词所有格、关系副词、复合关系代词及准关系代词。任何关系代词均有连接的功能,引导定语从句,与主语连接,并修饰主语中的名词短语或整个句子,详解如下。

一、关系代词

1.关系代词的检查法:

1.关系代词之前应有先行词(即被该关系代词代替的名词、短语或从句)

2.关系代词本身在所引导的定语从句中应作主语或宾语

3.否则关系代词之前应置介词,该介词亦可置于从句句尾

1)代替事物、短语或从句应使用which

This is a book which I like to read. (这是我很喜欢看的书。)

# which作read的宾语

This is a book which is sure to interest you a lot. (这是一本一定会引起你很大兴趣的书。)

# which作主语

This is a book in which I’ve found many errors.

== This is a book which I’ve found many errors in. (这是一本我发现有很多错误的书。)

# which作介词in的宾语

There is hardly anything he doesn’t know, which I really envy. (他几乎无所不知,这真令我羡慕。)

2)代替人则使用who或whom

He is a man who never lies. (他是个从不说谎的人。)

# who作主语

He is a man whom we all respect. (他是个我们都很尊敬的人。)

# whom作respect的宾语

He is a man with whom I enjoy working.

== He is a man whom I enjoy working with. (他是一个我喜欢共事的人。)

# whom作介词with的宾语

3)关系代词who, whom或witch之前若无逗号或介词时,均可用that代替

He is a man who never lies.

== He is a man that never lies.

4) 关系代词作宾语时之前若无逗号或介词,此时该关系代词可予省略

He is a man whom we all respect. 

== He is a man that we all respect.

==He is a man we all respect.

2.注意“数量词 + of + 关系代词” 的用法

He has taught many students, two of them have become noted scientists. (×, 两句无连词连接)

补救之道:

1.分号

He has taught many students; two of them have become noted scientists. (他教了许多学生;其中两名已成为了知名的科学家。)

2.独立分词

He has taught many students, two of them having become noted scientists.

3.数量词 + of + 关系代词

He has taught many students, two of whom have become noted scientists.

3. 关系代词与插入语的关系

1.插入语的形态:

1)主语 + 动词:

I think / believe / fell   (我认为/相信/觉得)

2)介词短语:

in my view / to my understanding (依我之见/就我所知)

2.插入语在关系代词之后,不影响该关系代词既有的格

1)主格(即主语)

He is a man who never lies.

—>He is a man who I think never lies. (他是个我认为从不说谎的人。)

He is a man who, to my understanding, never lies. (他是个就我所知从不说谎的人。)

2)宾格(即宾语)

He is a man whom we should all respect.

                         宾格                           及物动词

—>He is a man whom I believe we should all respect. (他是个我相信我们皆应尊敬的人。)

 二、关系代词所有格

1.关系代词所有格whose的用法:

1.whose有连接词的功能:

He is John, his father is my teacher. (×,两句无连接词连接)

—>He is John; his father is my teacher. (√)

—>He is John, whose father is my teacher. (√) (他是约翰,他的父亲是我的老师。)

2.whose的检查法:

1)之前应有先行词(即被代替的名词)

2)whose之后的名词在whose所引导的定语从句应作主语或宾语

3)否则之前应有介词,而介词亦可置于定语从句句尾。

I know the old man, whose daughter used to be my girlfriend. 

                                             主语               不及物动词

(我认识那位老先生,他的女儿曾是我女友。)

The girl whose father I fear is coming today.

                     宾语               及物动词

(那位他的父亲令我敬畏的女孩子今天要来。)

I love Mary, whose brother I hate to work with, though.

                                                                             介词

I love Mary, with whose brother I hate to work, though.

                       介词

(我喜欢玛丽,不过我不喜欢与她弟弟共事。)

3.whose除可替代人以外,亦可替代物:

I like this book, its contents are fascinating. (×, 两句无连接词连接)

—>I like this book, whose contents are fascinating. (√) (我喜欢看这本书,它的内容很精彩。)

I like this book, the contents of it are fascinating. (×, 两句无连接词连接)

—>I like this book, the contents of which are fascinating.

                                   of which the contents are fascinating.

                                   whose contents are fascinating.

 三、关系副词

1.关系副词的检查法:

关系副词有四个:why, when, where, how

1.why: 置于the reason 之后(why亦可省略)

I know the reason (for which / why) he is crying.

== I know (the reason / why) he is crying.

(我知道他为何哭的原因。)

2. when: 置于时间名词之后

I was born in 1990, (in which / when) the war just broke out.

 (我在1990年出生,当时正发生战争。)

The day (on which / when) he came, it was raining.

(他来的那一天正在下雨。)

注意:when之前若无逗号时,when亦可省略,故上句亦可改写为:

The day he came, it was raining.

3. where: 置于地方名词之后(where不可省略)

 Yesterday I went to Suzhou, (in which / where) I was born.

(昨天我到苏州区,那是我出生的地方。)

The small town (in which / where) I met my wife is not far from here.

(我和我妻子相遇的小镇离这里不远。)

4.how: 与the way择一使用,唯两者不能并存

That’s the way in which he handles tings. (√)

That’s the way how he handles things. (×)

 —>That’s the way he handles things. (√)

== That’s how he handles things.  (那是他处理事情的方法。)

 四、复合关系代词

1.复合关系代词what(所……的东西)的检查法:

1.之前不可有先行词(即名词)

2.将what视作the thing(s) which

3.which在所引导的定语从句中应作主语、宾语或be动词的表语。

(What / The thing which) he says is true. (他所说的是事实。)

Tell me (what / the thing which) happened last night. (告诉我昨天晚上发生的事情。)

Hard work has made him (what / the thing that) he is today.  (努力使他有今日成就。)

2.符合关系代词whatever(任何……的东西)的检查法:

 whatever 与 what 作复合关系代词时,意思相同;唯whatever强调的意味更浓。

1.之前不可有先行词(即名词)

2.将whatever视作anything which

3.which在所引导的定语从句中应作主语、宾语或be动词的表语

(Whatever / Anything which) he says is true. (他所说的任何话都是事实。)

Give him (whatever / anything which) he needs. (他要什么就给什么。)

注意:whatever亦可作副词连接词,等于no matter what(不论什么),引导状语从句,以逗号与主语相隔。

Whatever he says, it must be a lie.

== No matter what he says, it must be a lie. (无论他说什么,那一定是谎言。)

3.复合关系代词whoever(任何……的人)的检查法:

1.之前不可有先行词(即名词)

2.将whoever视作anyone who

3.who在所引导的定语从句中应作主语

 Whoever does it shall be punished.

== Anyone who    does it shall be punished.

                    主语  及物动词

I’ll punish (whoever does it / anyone who does it.)

(我会惩罚任何左这件事的人。)

注意:whoever亦可作副词连接词,等于no matter who(不论谁),引导状语从句,以逗号与主句相隔。

 Whoever dose it, he shall be punished.

== No matter who does it, he shall be punished. (不论谁做这件事情,他都将受到惩罚。)

4.复合关系代词whomever(任何……的人)的检查法:

1.之前不可有先行词(即名词)

2.将whomever视作anyone whom

3.whom在所引导的定语从句中应作宾语

I  trust whomever you trust.

== I trust anyone whom you trust

                                 宾语         及物动词

(你信任的任何人我都信任。)

5.复合关系代词whichever(同类的任何一个)的检查法:

1.之前不可有先行词(即名词)

2.将whichever视作any one which

3.which在所引导的定语从句中应作主语或宾语。

There are three apples here. You may choose (whichever / any one which) you like.  (这儿有三个苹果,你喜欢哪一个就选哪一个 。)

6.whereever的用法

wherever是副词连接词,等于no matter where(不论何处),引导状语从句,以逗号与主句相隔。

Wherever you are, I’ll find you.

== No matter where you are, I’ll find you. (不论你在哪儿,我都会找到你。)

7.whenever的用法

whenever亦是副词连接词,等于no matter when(不论何时),引导状语从句,以逗号与主句相隔。

Whenever you see him, he is studying.

== No matter when you see him, he is studying.

== Each time you see him, he is studying.

== Every time you see him, he is studying. (每次你见到他,他都在念书。)

8.however的用法

1.副词

表“然而”,可置于句首,之后置逗号;或插入居中,两旁置逗号。

     He is nice; however, I don’t like him.

== He is nice; I, however, don’t like him.

== He is nice. However, I don’t like him.

== He is nice. I, however, don’t like him. (他很好,不过我不喜欢他。)

2.副词连接词

 表“无论如何”,引导状语从句,以逗号与主语相隔。

However nice he may be, I don’t like him.

== No matter how nice he may be, I don’t like him. (不论他有多好,我就是不喜欢他。)

 五、准关系代词

1.but可作准关系代词,用于下列句型中:

There is no … who … not … (没有……不……)

There is no … whom … not …  == (凡……必……)

There is no … which … not …

== There is no … but …

a.句中有be动词时,保留该be动词。

There is no one in the office who isn’t sick of that lazybones.

== There is no one in the office but is sick of that lazybones. (办公室内无人不讨厌那个懒家伙。)

# lazybones /ˈleɪziboʊnz/ n. 懒人

b.句中有一般助动词(如can, will, should等)时,保留该助动词。

There is nothing which he cannot do.

== There is nothing but he can do. (他什么都会做。)

c.句中有do/does/did时,do/does/did予以删除,再将原形动词还原成应有的人称或时态变化。

There is no one who doesn’t love music.

== There is no one but loves music. (无人不喜欢音乐。)

2.as可作准关系代词,用于下列句型中

such … as … (像这样的……)

the same … as … (和……相同的……)

上列句型中,as之前如有名词时,as可作准关系代词:

a. 将as视作as the + 先行词(即as之前的名词)+ who/whom/which

b.在确定who/whom/which在所引导的定语从句中,who应做主语,whom做宾语,which可作主语或宾语。who及which亦可作be动词之后的表语,但一律以that代替。

1)主语

Such a man as lies isn’t worth our praise.

                  主语  不及物动词

 == Such a man as the man who lies isn’t worth our praise.

                                                主语  不及物动词

(像这样说谎的人不值得我们赞美。)

2)宾语

This is exactly the same car as I bought a month ago.

                                                 宾语   及物动词

== This is exactly the same car as the car which I bought a month ago.

                                                                          宾语       及物动词

(这辆车和我上个月所买的车完全相同。)

3)be动词之后的表语(此时be动词往往予以省略)

Such an honest man as Peter (is) is worth our praise.

                                    表语       be动词

== Such an honest man as the man that (非who) Peter(is)is worth our praise. 

(像皮特这样老实的人值得我们赞美。)

 注意:

the same … as … (和……相同的……(两个))

the same … that … (同一个……(一个))

I have the same car as he is driving. (我有一辆车,与他正在开的那一辆相同。)

I have the same car that (非which) he is driving. (我有一辆车,就是他正在开的那一辆。)

3.which代替整句时,亦可用as取代which,唯which引导的定语从句只能置于主语之后,而as引导的从句则可置于主句前后。

He is nice, which/as we all know.

== As we all know, he is nice. (我们都知道,他为人不错。)

但: Which we all know, he is nice. (×)

4.than亦可作准关系代词,用于下列句型中

 more + 名词 + than …

上列句型中,than之前若有名词时,than可作准关系代词:

a.将than视作than the + 先行词(即than之前的名词)+ who/whom/which

b.再确定who/whom/which在所引导的定语从句中,who应作主语,whom应作宾语,which则可作主语做宾语。who及which亦可作be动词之后的表语,但一律以that代替。

1)主语

I have more money than is needed.

                       名词      主语 动词

== I have more money than the money which is needed.

                                                                        主语  动词

(我的钱必须要的还多。)

2)宾语

I have more money than you need.

                        名词     宾语       及物动词

== I have more money than the money which you need.

                                                                        宾语          及物动词

(我的钱比你所需要的还多。)

3)be动词之后的表语(此时be动词往往予以省略)

He is a better student than you (are).

== He is a better student than the student that (非who) you are. (他这个学生比你要好。)

 

赞(0) 打赏
未经允许不得转载:琼杰笔记 » 英语语法基础【五】——关系词
分享到: 更多 (0)

评论 抢沙发

评论前必须登录!

 

分享交流,合作共赢!

联系我们加入QQ群

觉得文章有用就打赏一下文章作者

非常感谢你的打赏,我们将继续给力更多优质内容,让我们一起创建更加美好的网络世界!

支付宝扫一扫打赏

微信扫一扫打赏