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英语语法基础【四】——动词

英语语法基础【三】——名词性从句的功能

一、动词的分类

1.动词共分为五种

a.主语 + 完全不及物动词

He fainted. (他晕倒了。)

b.主语 + 不完全不及物动词 + 标语

He is a gentleman. (他是君子)

c.主语 + 完全及物动词 + 宾语

I love her.  (我爱她。)

d.主语 + 不完全及物动词 + 宾语 + 宾语补语

He made me angry. (他使我生气。)

e.主语 + 授予动词 + 间接宾语 + 直接宾语

He gave me a book. (他给我一本书。)

由上得知,以上五大基本句型全由五种动词演绎而成。故若想了解句型结构,就须了解如何判断动词是及物动词还是不及物动词。

2.判断及物或不及物动词的方法:

我____他。

他被我____。

将英文的动词随意填入上列两句空格中,再译成中文。如果意思无毛病,就是及物动词(transitive verb, 简称 vt), 否则就是不及物动词(intransitive verb, 简称 vi.)。

注意:在上列两个含有空格的中文句中,“我”、“他”可任意改变成其他名词或代词,如:我车。车被我了。

 二、完全不及物动词

完全不及物动词即无须加宾语意思就很完全的动词(简称 vi)。出现的形态只有两种:

a.主语 + vi

Something happened. (有事发生了。)

Something will happen. (有事即将发生。)

Something has happened. (有事已经发生了。)

b.主语 + be + vi.的现在分词(即 V-ing)

Something was happening. (当时有事正在发生。)

由上得知,凡不及物动词,不可造成下列的句子:

Something was happened. (×)

 三、完全及物动词

1.完全及物动词即加了宾语意思很完全的动词(简称 vt.)。

He wrote a book. (他写了一本书。)

I washed the car. (我洗了车。)

2.完全及物动词出现的形态有四种:

a.主语 + vt. + 宾语

He wrote a book. (他写了一本书。)

b.主语 + be + vt. 的现在分词 + 宾语(正在……)

He was writing a book. (当时他正在写一本书。)

c.主语 + be + vt. 的过去分词(被……)

The book was written by him. (这本书是他写的。)

d.主语 + be + being + vt.的过去分词(正在被……)

The book was being written by him. (当时这本书正被他撰写中。)

 3.表“意愿”的动词,应以不定式短语作宾语。

a.常用的表“意愿”的动词如下:

want(要)、hope(希望)、wish(希望)、expect(期望)、long(渴望)、aspire(渴望)、desire(渴望)、refuse(拒绝)

I want seeing him after class. (×)

——>> I want to see him after class. (√)  (下课后我要去看他。)

I hope to study abroad next year. (我希望明年能出国深造。)

b.anticipate亦表“期待”,但仅可用动名词作其宾语。

I expect to see him again. (√)

== I anticipate seeing him again.

== I’m looking forward to seeing him again. (我期盼再次见到他。)

4.下列完全及物动词一律以动名词做宾语:

consider(考虑)、imagine(想象)、enjoy(喜欢)、dislike(不喜欢)、resent(痛恨)、suggest(建议)、recommend(建议)、avoid(避免)、escape(逃避)、risk(冒险)、deny(否认)、admit(承认)、mind(在乎)、practice(练习)、finish(完成)、quit(停止、戒除)

I’ll consider to study abroad. (×)

——>> I’ll consider studying abroad. (√) (我会考虑出国深造。)

The thief finally admitted stealing/having stolen the money. (小偷终于承认偷了这些钱。)

5.下列动词可接不定式做宾语,亦可接动名词作宾语,意思有别:

a.forget to V (忘了要……)

forget V-ing (忘了曾……)

Sorry, I forgot to mail the letter. (抱歉,我忘了要寄这封信。)

I forgot seeing him before. Now I remember. (我忘了曾见过他。现在我记起来了。)

b.remember to V (记得要……)

remember V-ing (记得曾……)

I’ll remember to mail the letter. (我会记得要寄信。)

I remember seeing him before. (我记得曾见过他。)

c.regret to V (抱歉要……)

regret V-ing (后悔曾……)

We regret to tell you that you are fired.

== We are sorry to tell you that you are fired. (很抱歉告诉你,你被炒鱿鱼了。)

Jane regrets marrying that playboy. (简后悔嫁给那个花花公子。)

d.stop to V (停下所有工作以便从事……)

stop V-ing (停止做……)

I stopped to say hello to John when I saw him. (我看到约翰时,便停下来给他打招呼。)

I stopped writing when I saw him. (我见到他时便停笔了。)

6.下列动词可用不定式或动名词做宾语,意思不变:

continue(继续)、start(开始)、begin(开始)、like(喜欢)、love(爱)、hate(恨)

I’ll continue to do it. == I’ll continue doing it. (我会继续做这件事。)

I love to sing. == I love singing. (我喜欢唱歌。)

四、不完全不及物动词

1.不完全不及物动词仍是不及物动词,唯意思不完全,因而不能单独存在。完全不及物动词则可单独存在。

您暂时无权查看此隐藏内容!

六、授与动词

此类动词亦为及物动词的一种,惟须接两个宾语。第一个宾语是间接宾语,表授予对象;第二个宾语称为直接宾语,表授与的东西。

I gave    him         a book.

          间接宾语     直接宾语

== I gave a book to him.  (我给他一本书。)

a. 表 “给予” 用to

give, send, tell, bring, teach, owe(欠) 均属此用法。

He told me a joke.

== He told a joke to me.

I owe you nothing.

= I owe nothing to you. (我不欠你什么。)

b. 表 “代劳” 用for

make(制造)、buy均属此用法。

I made him a chair.

== I made a chair for him. 

I bought him a book.

== I bought a book for him.

c. 表“从……中” 用of

ask属此用法。

I asked him a question.

== I asked a question of him.

七、五大基本句型

之前提及英语有五种动词,按此五种动词,形成五大基本句型:

第一句型:主语 + 完全不及物动词

He slept.

第二句型:主语 + 不完全不及物动词 + 表语

He looks happy.

He is nice.

第三句型:主语 + 完全及物动词 + 宾语

He loves music.

I know what to do.

I believe (that) he is nice.

I want to study abroad.

I enjoy singing.

第四句型:主语 + 不完全及物动词 + 宾语 + 宾语补语

I made him happy.

We all regard him as a hero.

第五句型:主语 + 授与动词 + 间接宾语 + 直接宾语

I gave him a book.

== I gave a book to him.

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